Keeping the Legacy of Marcus Garvey Alive: The Papers, the Film

The John Hope Franklin Research Center at Duke University has acquired the Robert A. Hill’s Collection of the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. The collection includes the research materials and documents collected to compose the twelve-volume – Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) Papers (University of California and Duke University Press). Hill initially edited and published these documents in 1983 focusing on Garvey and UNIA movement in Africa, America and Caribbean.
According to The John Hope Franklin Research Center, Duke University, the materials constitute one of the largest collections of documents on Garvey and the UNIA organization. The collection includes more than three hundred boxes of material. It is currently being processed at the Center prior to making it available to the public. It includes minutes of UNIA proceedings in London in 1928 and a copy of the stock certificate that was offered in the Black Star Line – issued in 1919.
accession_010_020Copy of stock Certificate (1919)
The life of Marcus Garvey was chronicled in the PBS documentary series – American Experience – tilled Marcus Garvey: Look for me in the Whirlwind in 2011. Also, plans are in place for a new full length film starring renowned British actor Delroy Lindo – an actor with strong Caribbean connection. Lindo will take on the role of Marcus Garvey the journalist, publisher, political leader, orator, entrepreneur and Black Nationalist and Pan- African leader. The film will cover the Garvey-years as founder and leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). It will also cover his work as pioneering founder of the Black Star Line – a project to promote the return of individuals of African descent in the African Diaspora to the lands of their ancestors. Lindo’s body of work include the films Malcolm X, Crooklyn, Clockers and the biographical film Satchel – based on the life of baseball great – Satchel Page.
Lindo was born to Jamaican parents in Lewisham, England, he later moved with his mother to Toronto, Canada, and then to the United States, where he graduated from the American Conservancy Theater in San Francisco.
In addition, a movement led by Garvey’s son – Dr, Julius Garvey – for the US Government to pardon Marcus Garvey has picked up steam in the past year. Garvey was “convicted” and place in jail in 1924 and was released and deported to his native country – Jamaica in 1927.
Author/editor Dr. Robert Hill is Editor-in-Chief of the multivolume edition of The Marcus Garvey & Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, a research project conducted within the James S. Coleman African Studies Center, UCLA. In addition, he is Literary Executor of The Estate of prominent Caribbean historian C.L.R. James and General Editor of The C.L.R. James Archives, Duke University Press.
Dr. Hill (“Bobby Hill”) is Professor Emeritus of History and Research at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Visiting Fellow at The Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES), University of the West Indies at Mona, Jamaica, W.I. He has been a member of the UCLA History Department for over 25 yrs. He previously held appointments at Dartmouth College, the Institute of the Black World (IBW, Atlanta) and Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
Bobby Hill was a personal friend and colleague of Guianese historian Walter Rodney, PhD. They travelled together to attend the Congress of Black Writers in Montreal, Canada in October 1968 and worked together at the IBW at the same time. He edited and wrote the forward to Rodney’s masterpiece Walter Rodney Speaks: The Making of an African Intellectual. Hill was also co-authored of the introduction to Rodney’s classic economics/ history book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa.

K12 Community Views: Music Cruises vs. Music Festivals

In the past, music lovers use to look forward to music festivals in places like New Orleans, the Caribbean, the British Isles, New Port, Rhode Island and Monterey, CA. Today these festivals have solid competition from a new kind of music festival at high seas. One can sail the Caribbean with his/her favorite band and be treated to intimate performances and chances to meet artists face-to-face, while having the vacation of a lifetime. From big band, classic jazz, contemporary jazz, country music, R & B, Blues to reggae – these cruises appeal to a broad range of melodic taste. Guest on these cruises may even be treated to special performances.
If you have had the opportunity to attend both a land-based music festival and a recent music cruise in the in the past 12 months, tell us in 100 words or less – which was your preference and why?
In the future, if you can only attend one music festival in a single year and you are asked to make a choice which would you choose?

CLAY: Clay List – Right on Time

Clay (born Clayton Morrison on August 9, 1982 in Kingston, Jamaica) is a classically trained pianist, music producer, song writer and reggae singer. He currently resides and record out of the United Kingdom. In his short years in the music business he has established himself as brilliant artist/songwriter/producer – working with artists such as The Neptunes (currently produced by Pharrell), Teddy Riley and Timbaland. Clay’s body of work (client list) include labels such as Sony Music, Atlantic Records, WEA, VP Records and Avex & Pony Canyon (both Japanese companies)
In addition to the piano, the very versatile Clay also plays drums and guitar. He is described as “having an incredible ear for music – with no boundaries or limits on genre”. Clay is as comfortable with Hip Hop, R & B and Pop as he is with his chosen genre – reggae and is rapidly becoming an artists’ favorite artist.  He has established his own Calybeat label which he describe as half of his first name and “I like clay because a potter uses it and molds it into something beautiful and since I make music and can mold sounds into a beautiful song, the marriage of Clay and Beat work well”. On Claybeat he has developed a unique sound that works as easily for Sean Pauls’s Hold My Hand as it works for Timbaland Hip Hop sound, the Chipmunk’s Pray for Me or his latest release-Can I Have My Heart Back.
While Clay is still busy stamping the Claybeat “signature” a number of projects, his solo career has really taken off and he has become part of both radio playlists and the dancehall scene in the United Kingdom and throughout Europe with songs such as Fire, Life, London Town and Shadow after Dark. His latest five-track EP titled Clay-List include potential hits such as Late than Never, Still the Same and two of this writer’s favorites- Clean Hands and Dirty Heart & Wolf Inna Sheep Clothe.
He describes his personal goal as simply “make great music that inspires people and to maintain a balance in his life”. You can checkout his music a Blog at

Looking for a Super Food?

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae.
The flesh (edible part) of the papaya is normally a bright orange color and can have yellow or pink hues. It is deliciously sweet with musky undertones and a soft, butter-like consistency. Inside the inner cavity of the fruit are black, round seeds encased in a gelatinous-like substance.
Papayas, native to Central America, have been long revered by the Latin American Indians. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. Spanish and Portuguese explorers brought papayas to many other subtropical lands to which they journeyed including India, the Philippines, and parts of Africa.
In the 20th century, papayas were brought to the United States and have been cultivated in Hawaii, the major U.S. producer since the 1920s. This revered tropical fruit was reputably called “the fruit of the angels” by Christopher Columbus.
Dr. Janardhana Hebbar, a native of India has provided the following
1. Digestive Aid: Papaya is known to be a natural laxative, relieving habitual constipation, bleeding piles and chronic diarrhea. The digestive enzyme papain along with the high water content and soluble fiber improve the ease of digestibility.
2. Fights Emphysema: If you smoke, or are frequently exposed to secondhand smoke, papaya’s vitamin A can help reduce your lung inflammation and stave off respiratory diseases.
3. Prevents Heart Disease: Papaya is rich in fiber, Vitamin C and antioxidants, which prevent cholesterol oxidation that can result in dangerous plague formation contributing to heart attacks or strokes. Papaya contains zero cholesterol, and the high content of fiber will also help lower high cholesterol levels.
4. Intestinal Disorders: The papain in unripe papaya is extremely beneficial for those who are deficient in gastric juice, have excess of unhealthy mucus in the stomach, dyspepsia and intestinal irritation.
5. Menstrual Irregularities: Unripe papaya juice has long been recommended to ease menstrual flow in cases of menstruation cessation in young ladies due to cold or trauma. In pregnant ladies, regular consumption of a small slice of papaya helps to cure nausea and morning sickness.
6. Skin Care: Applying unripe papaya juice on open wounds prevents pus formation and swelling and also is also used to treat skin disorders like chronic ulcers, acne and psoriasis. Papaya face packs help remove pigmentation or brown spots, and improve skin texture and elasticity. Papaya is rich in Vitamin C, Vitamin E and antioxidants like beta-carotene which helps prevent skin cell damage, keeping wrinkles and other signs of ageing at bay.
7. Spleen Enlargement: An ancient remedy to reduce swelling and enlargement of spleen is to consume ripe papaya that has been soaked in vinegar.
8. Respiratory Disorders: A concoction of fresh unripe papaya juice and honey dissolves the “false” air-passage blocking membranes and prevents spread of infection, providing soothing relief against respiratory complaints of cough, bronchitis, breathlessness, over-inflamed tonsils, diphtheria and other throat disorders.
9. Hypertension Antidote: Papaya is also a rich source of Potassium, a critical component in maintaining healthy blood pressure levels, relaxing the nerves and aiding blood circulation, preventing heart ailments and hypertension.
10. Eye Care: Papaya is rich in Vitamin A and phytochemicals – lutein, cryptoxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which help protect and maintain healthy cells, and act as antioxidants and filters blocking harmful high-energy blue wavelengths of light, and preventing diseases like age-related macular degeneration.
11. Anti-Inflammatory: The anti-inflammatory effects of the critical enzymes papain and chymopapain, along with Vitamins C, E, and beta carotene in papaya, greatly reduce inflammation in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout and asthma, and increase the rate of healing from burns.
12. Prevents Colon Cancer: The high water content and rich soluble fiber in papaya binds to cancer-causing toxins, and eliminates them from the body during bowel movements and antioxidants, phytonutrients, flavonoids, and carotenes prevent free radical cell damage causing colon, liver, lung and prostate cancers.
13. Strengthens Immunity Shield: The presence of Beta-carotene in papaya is required for the proper functioning of the immune system, preventing recurrent ear infections, cold and flu. Vitamin C, A and E all powerful immune boosting antioxidant vitamins, help maintain healthy mucus membranes, clear skin, good eye sight, all the while fighting free radicals.
14. Aids Weight Loss: Papaya is a great weight loss diet food as it contains very low calories, zero cholesterol, high water content to hydrate, soluble fiber content that satiates you and boosts the waste management functions, effectively helping you shed the pounds from the inside out.
15. Diabetic Food: Papaya is extremely sweet to taste but surprisingly has low-sugar content. A great food for diabetics and people wanting to prevent it.
16. Stress Buster: Vitamin C in papayas help regulate the stress hormones making it a must food before you start your day or when you want to relax after a tiring, stressful work day.
17. Treats Renal Disorders: The aqueous seed extract of the unripe papaya, stimulates antioxidant and oxidative free radical scavenging, in poison induced kidney disorders, speeding the recovery process.
18. Dengue Treatment: The extract obtained from the papaya leaf increases the platelet count or thrombocytes in patients suffering from dengue fever.
19. Fights Human Papillomavirus: Papaya is rich in vital nutrients- beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein zeaxanthin and vitamin C, which reduce the risk of HPV, the cervical cancer virus, affecting women.
20. Nutritional Powerhouse: Papaya contains a special proteolytic enzyme called papain which is an excellent aid to digestion, and treats jellyfish sting and surgical wounds. It is a rich source of anti-oxidant nutrients such as beta-carotene, vitamin A and C and flavonoids, B vitamins B1 and B6, folate and pantothenic acid. It also contains small amounts of the minerals calcium, chlorine, iron, phosphorus, potassium, silicon and sodium important to proper cellular functioning and an essential component of a healthy diet.
Side Effects and Precautions:
• Latex Allergy: Like avocados and bananas, papayas contain substances called chitinases that are associated with the latex-fruit allergy syndrome. There is strong evidence of the cross-reaction between latex and these foods.
• Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Don’t take papaya by mouth in medicinal amounts if you are pregnant. There is some evidence that unprocessed papain, one of the chemicals found in papaya, might poison the fetus or cause birth defects.
• Carotenemia: Eating too much of a yellow, green or orange-colored food that contains beta carotene can cause a benign form of skin discoloration (yellow or orange) called carotenemia.
• Respiratory Distress: People who eat too much papaya and ingest high levels of papain may develop symptoms consistent with hay fever or asthma, including wheezing, breathing difficulties and nasal congestion.
• Kidney Stones: Consuming more than recommended vitamin C (found in papaya) per day can induce toxicity symptoms, including oxalate kidney stones. Oxalate is a byproduct of vitamin C once the nutrient has been metabolized.
• Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Ironically, the same papain that calms your stomach can cause an upset stomach when taken in large amounts. The high fiber content of papaya can also contribute to unrest of the digestive system when you indulge in too much of the tropical fruit, and the latex in the fruit’s skin may cause stomach irritation.
This perspective on the very popular fruit Papaya is provided by Dr. Janardhana Hebbar, Senior Ayurvedic Consultant at CureJoy.( Knowledge of Life), Mangalore, India. He is author of four books on Ayurveda.

Why has it Taken 28 Years?

The Peter Tosh Estate has announced that (April 20, 2015) will be the first annual recognition of the date as ‘International Peter Tosh Day‘, a celebration honoring the Grammy Award-winning reggae legend, musician, and human-rights activist.
The above sentence was taken from a recent edition of the Jamaica Observer newspaper. For those who are not familiar with the work of Peter Tosh let me try to reintroduce him. Peter Tosh, OM was a Jamaican reggae musician. Along with Bob Marley and Bunny Wailer, he was one of the core members of the band The Wailers, after which he established himself as a successful solo artist, revolutionary, cultural warrior, human rights activists and a promoter of Rastafarian religion. He was murdered during a home invasion on September 11, 1987.
Peter Tosh
One has to wonder if the sudden push to recognize and celebrate Peter Tosh has anything to do with the fact that he was the first artist to openly advocate legalization of marijuana in the song Legalize It – released almost 40 years ago. Will Peter Touch finally be given what he has deserved for 28 years because of his marijuana advocacy? And because many who contributed to his disrespect now see the potential for financial gains from his legacy? It is with keen interest that I have observed that most of the articles written about this “International Peter Tosh Day” make reference to his work as an advocate of legalization of marijuana, but nothing about the most important areas of his life. Peter Tosh is undoubtedly one of the three most important reggae artists of all time (the others being Bob Marley and Jimmy Cliff). He is reggae’s most revolutionary artist in the history of the genre.
I have always thought that the lives of Bob Marley and Peter Touch were somewhat parallel. Very similar to that of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X in the civil rights struggles of the United States in the 1960’s. Bob was the Martin and Peter was the Malcolm. Both were advocates and could be described as revolutionaries for the same cause, but with very different approach. However, while one method received “main-street” approval, the other was greeted with fear and uncertainty. As a result one is highly celebrated, while the other is hardly remembered.
It is full time for us to stop waiting for “approval” to celebrate our heroes. The genuine celebration of the life of Peter – like that of life Malcolm is long overdue. This time let’s place his achievements as an artist, revolutionary, cultural warrior, human rights activist and model Rastafarian ahead of his advocacy for legalization of marijuana.

Giants Behind the Music: Vere Johns

Vere Johns (Joseph Vere Everette Johns) was born in Mandeville, a city located in the parish of Manchester in central Jamaica on November 28, 1893 and died on September 10, 1966. He was a journalist/actor and one of the island’s earliest radio personalities. He was producer and host of the Vere Johns talent hour on radio, a program that contributed to the launching of the careers of many of the country’s musical giants. Vare Johns served in the South Lancaster (England) Regiment in World War 1. After the war he moved to the United States where he found work as a newspaper columnist and as host of talent contests.
He returned to Jamaica in 1939 and later joined the Jamaica Star newspaper – where he wrote the weekly column “Vere Johns Says”. Shortly thereafter, he began hosting a weekly talent show on RJR, one of the island’s two radio stations, called “Vere Johns Opportunity Knock”. This show is said to have launched the careers of several artists – among them : Lloyd Charmers, Hortense Ellis, John Holt, Bob Andy, Desmond Dekker, The Wailers, Alton Ellis, Jackie Edwards, Dobby Dobson, Boris Gardiner, Laurel Aitken, and Millie Small. These talent contests were held and recorded live in venues such as The Majestic, Ward, Palace and Ambassador Theaters.
In addition to showcasing talent, these shows also served as scouting venues for producers such as as Clement “Coxsone” Dodd, Prince Buster and Arthur “Duke” Reid – the primary record producers and Sound System operators of the period. Singers were recruited and taken to the Stanly Motta studio (the only recording studio in Jamaica at the time) to record cover versions of US hits for their sound systems.
In addition to his contribution to the music industry, Vare Johns was one Jamaica’s earliest Shakespearean actors and acting teacher.

Caribbean Breadfruit: Not Just Any Fruit

Breadfruit is unlike any other fruit you’ve eaten before. That’s because breadfruit does not have the look, feel or consistency of a typical fruit, but like its name suggests, looks much like bread. When the breadfruit is ripe it is relatively soft and the inside has a yellow, cream colored flesh that resembles bread. The flesh of the breadfruit is somewhat sweet and has a nice fragrant smell.
Breadfruit is native to the Malay Peninsula and the western Pacific islands, but has also been widely grown in tropical regions across the world. Breadfruit is a staple food, sought after for its cheap cost and it being a source of high energy.
In fact, breadfruit was first brought to the Caribbean and the Americas by Captain William Bligh in the late 18th century as a cheap high energy food source to feed and energize slaves in the new world. Breadfruit has the health benefit of providing high energy to those who eat it through its carbohydrates that the body needs for warmth and maintenance during daily activities.
Not only is breadfruit a rich source of energy, breadfruit also contains significantly high amounts of fiber. According to the American Heart Association fiber decreases bad cholesterol and triglycerides which increases heart attack risks. An increased intake of fiber lowers LDL (bad) cholesterol levels in the body, while elevating HDL (good) cholesterol levels in the body. Breadfruit protects the body against heart disease and heart attacks.
Additionally, the fiber found in breadfruit can help those with diabetes to control the disease. Research shows that fiber can control diabetes by reducing the absorption of glucose from the food we eat. Another health benefit of breadfruit is that breadfruit helps to make our intestines and bowels work properly. Fiber regulates bowel movements and clears out the buildup of junk from our intestines; eating breadfruit on a regular basis can reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.
Breadfruit benefits the body as it contains favorable amounts of Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. These essential fatty acids help the body and mind to develop normally. Fatty acids also stimulate skin and hair growth, regulate our metabolism, promote reproduction and stimulate bone health. In addition to these health benefits breadfruit also contains Vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron and phosphorus. Further research is being done to uncover even more health benefits of breadfruit. But in the meantime, you can start eating more breadfruit and take advantage of the many health benefits we know it has now.

The Mind Body Corner with Dr. Melissa Clarke: Why Stress Can Make Us Sick

It is health which is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver. – Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) Gandhi

What is health? A medical “check-up” often focuses on making sure we are not sick – checking our blood pressures, mammograms, colonoscopies. These are all excellent things to keep on top of, but do not always necessarily focus on “health”. You can have all good results but still not be healthy. That is because health, or wholeness, is really not only a physical concern ; it starts with something only we can do for ourselves – focusing on well-being, both mentally and emotionally, which in turn leads to maintaining a healthy body.
Doctors, herbs and medicines do not heal us. These options give our bodies the right substrates/building blocks to work with in order to for our body to heal itself. When we cut our finger for example, the body has the intelligence to send extra blood components that are specifically designed to form a seal, harden, protect the body from invasion from bacteria at that spot and eventually close up like nothing ever happened. This regeneration is happening at every minute of every day in our bodies. We have cancer cells popping up daily, are constantly bombarded by toxins in or food/air/water, and are exposed to bacteria and viruses. Yet most of us do not get sick from these things at the same rate we are exposed to them.
Our bodies are in a constant state of healing to stay well on a minute to minute basis. Hormones and messenger chemicals turn on and turn off these important repair systems in our bodies. One of the biggest factors in how effectively this system functions is our emotions. “Feeling stressed” sets off a separate set of hormones and messenger chemicals via the nervous system that mobilize the body’s resources for the “fight or flight response” and affect almost every organ in the body. Blood pressure goes up, the heart pumps faster, the intestines slow down, and blood vessels constrict, just to name a few. This system works great when there is real physical danger. It does not work well when it is always “on” due to feeling stressed, and often leads to the common ailments we experience. Here are just 5 common ways this happens:
With stress, your hormones set off a series of neurochemical events in your brain that stimulates your nerves and causes your blood vessels to swell. In many people this is felt as tension headaches and migraines.
Stomach Upset/ Reflux/ Irritable Bowel Disease
Anxiety and stress lead the body to make more digestive acid, which leads to heartburn. The stomach also can take longer to empty food, which causes gas and bloating, and cause the intestines to contract more, leading to cramping and diarrhea.
Colds and Flu
Stress suppresses the immune system, making you susceptible to catching airborne illnesses. In a study at Carnegie Mellon University, in Pittsburgh, researchers surveyed volunteers about what was going on in their lives, and then infected them with a cold virus. The men and women coping with stresses ranging from a bad marriage to unemployment were twice as likely to get sick as those with fewer problems.
Weight Gain
Under stress, the hormones adrenaline and cortisol are released. With chronic exposure, these stimulate hunger since your body assumes you will need energy to defend yourself. We often respond to this hunger by eating the items which will provide the quickest energy – fats and carbs. This of course leads to weight gain..
Neck and Back Pain
Stress triggers the sympathetic nervous system to reduce blood flow to the muscles, which makes them prone to spasms. In addition, our posture when stressed tends to suffer, since we tend to hunch over and tense the shoulder and neck muscles, making the muscle tension worse.
So how can we set up an environment that protects us from the effects of stress? In the next issue we will look at ways that research has proven – nutrition, sleep, exercise, and practices for emotional well-being – which we can use to lessen the effects of stress and promote self healing as well.
Melissa Clarke, MD
Dr. Clark is author of the new book “Excuse Me Doctor! I’ve Got What? Taking Ownership of Your Health and making Healthcare Reform Work for You This book was recently selected by Essence Magazine as one of its top picks and is spotlighted as a great read for helping one to keep his/her New Year’s resolution on keeping your body healthy in 2015

The Real Dub Masters

Dub is often described as a genre of music which grew out of reggae music in the 1960s, and is commonly considered a sub-genre, though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae with the recent work of producers such as Major Lazer.  The music in this genre consists predominantly of instrumental remixes of existing recordings and is achieved by significantly manipulating and reshaping the recordings, usually by removing the vocals from an existing music piece, and emphasizing the drum and bass parts (this stripped-down track is referred to in Jamaica as a ‘riddim’).  King Tubby‘s added the techniques of echo, reverb, panoramic delay, and occasional dubbing of vocal or instrumental snippets from the original version or other works.
In addition to Osbourne “King Tubby” Ruddock, three other names must be mentioned among the pioneers of this genre of reggae music. These are Lee “Scratch” Lee Scratch PerryPerry, the late engineer Errol Thompson and Guyanese engineer/producer Neil Joseph “the Mad Professor” Fraser.  What’s common among all four Dub Masters – they were not musicians, they were engineers.
Dub music has influenced many genres of music, including hard rock (most significantly the sub-genre of post-punk and other kinds of punk), pop, hip hop,disco, and later house and techno. Dub has become a basis for the genres of jungle/drum and bass and dub-step.
Traditional dub has survived over the years and two of the originators, Lee “Scratch” Perry and Mad Professor, continue to produce new material. In fact, Ariwa Records – established in the front room of Mad Professor’s house in 1970 has become one the giant reggae music labels in the United Kingdom with artists such as Pato Banton, Sandra Cross, Johnny Clarke recording on the label.  Lee “Scratch” Perry lives in Switzerland these days, but his Black Ark label continue to release new material for several albums each year.